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Mechanical Clocks

In 1656, 'Christian Huygens' (Dutch scientist), made the first 'Pendulum clock', with a mechanism using a 'natural' period of oscillation. 'Galileo Galilei' is credited, in most historical books, for inventing the pendulum as early as 1582, but his design was not built before his death. Huygens' clock ,when built, had an error of 'less than only one minute a day'. This was a massive leap in the development of maintaining accuracy, as this had previously never been achieved. Later refinements to the pendulum clock reduced this margin of error to 'less than 10 seconds a day'.

Huygens, in 1657, developed what is known today as the 'balance wheel and spring assembly', which is still found in some of today's wrist watches. This allowed watches of the seventeenth-century to keep accuracy of time to approximately ten minutes a day. Meanwhile, in London, England (UK) in 1671, 'William Clement' began building clocks with an 'anchor' or 'recoil' escapement, which interfered even less with the perpetual motion of the pendulum system of clock.

'George Graham', in 1721, invented a design with the degree of accuracy to 'one second a day' by compensating for changes in the pendulum's length caused by temperature variations. The mechanical clock continued to develop until they achieved an accuracy of 'a hundredth-of-a-second a day', when the pendulum clock became the accepted standard in most astronomical observatories.